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  • Ramesh Gupta

Śrī Rāma (Shri Ram) -known as Maryada Puroshottam shri Ram

Indian tradition regards Shri Ram (Śrī Rāma) as the defining character of Dharma, the righteousness, i.e. Rāma is embodiment of the Dharma [Rāmo vigrahvān dharmaḥ]. The Vedas and the later Vedic literature describe the set of human values and duties for the humankind, called Dharma. The life history of Shri Ram tells us that he never crossed the limits of Dharma. According to the Sage Vālmīki, he followed the four-fold great endeavors (puruśārtha chatuṣṭaya) diligently after their due understanding, namely, the Dharma, Prosperity, Enjoyment and Emancipation.[1] This led him to be given the legendary title of Maryādā Puruṣottam – the greatest among the great human beings.

Śrī Rāma’s purest and loftiest character purified a number of other human beings who were downtrodden by way of their characterless life. A number of poets became immortal by way of glorifying him. Sanskrit literature occupies a time frame later to the Vedas and the body of the Vedic literature, and its first epic is in the form of Valmiki’s Ramayana. That made the writer Valmiki’s name as an immortal name.[2] So is true with Gosvāmī Tulasīdās who wrote the Hindi version of Śrī Rāma’s life under the title of Rāma-Carita-Mānasa. His book has kept our traditions alive amongst several generations witnessing several centuries.

Maharṣi Vālmīki was eager to write an epic on a unique person who was righteous to the highest level, who preserved human values in most difficult moments, who was diplomat par excellence, and who was highly regarded by the population. It happened that Devarṣi Nārada appeared in his monastery at that time when he was contemplating on a character that fitted his canvas well. Nārada was himself an encyclopedia personified. Thus, Vālmīki found the right opportunity to present his riddle to Nārada, namely who would be the right character for the epic he had in mind to write about. The character must have highest virtues and also, he should be able to inspire the population at large towards an ideal. In reply, Nārada described Rāma’s personality in great detail. This dialogue between Vālmīki and Nārada gave rise to the legendary great epic known as Rāmāyaṇa. Vālmīki has skillfully brought out the Vedic teachings through the characteristics and life history of Rāma, such as, what are our duties to the family and society we live in; dos and don’ts in complex situations when demands are conflicting; and there are no clear boundary lines to distinguish Dharma and Adharma. Let us now have a glimpse of their dialogue.

Vālmīki : O Nārada ! Who is the person that inhabits this earth; who has the multi-faceted personality that he preserves all the human values; he is a great warrior; he can sacrifice for the righteousness; he is truthful; he is grateful to others’ kindness; and is bold enough not to forsake his given word.[3] Who is pure in his acts, noble and kind to other beings, learned and courageous, and a combination of grace and beauty?[4] Who can control his swift mind; who can conquer anger; who is radiant and is void of ill-will about others? Furthermore, who is brave enough that nobody dares to invite his wrath.[5]

Nārada replied to the above question: O Maharṣi Vālmīki! Rāma alone is the suitable character to fit in these demands who took birth in the Ikṣvāku ancestry. He has all these qualities in good measure. He has the magnificent control on the swift mind; his bravery knows no limits; his radiant face illuminates the darkest corner on the earth; his patience knows no depth of the earth; he has a great ability to control his body and mind organs[6]; he has intelligence, diplomatic skills, great oratorical skills, graceful, vanquishing the enmity from the heart of the diehard ardent enemies, wide shoulders to act as pillars of foundation, great arms, straight neck, well defined chin[7], wide breast and carries a large bow. The bones below the throat are invisible owing to the layers of skin and under-skin. He can prosecute his enemies by his arms that can reach his knees. His head is well rounded as a crown befitting the radiant forehead. The way he walks attracts everybody far and near.[8] His magnanimous body is simply perfect; it’s neither small nor big. His complexion is sublime. He is bravery personified. His chest is wide. His eyes are deep and penetrating. His body features are of highest order.[9]

His knowledge of Dharma is in-depth. He has love for truth and works tirelessly for people’s welfare. He carries fame, knowledge, and purity, control of senses and concentration of mind.[10]

Caring for the people as God would do, facilitator of prosperity, remover of enmity, and protector of all living beings and Dharma, are his characteristics.[11] Furthermore, he knows the duties of a peoples’ ruler and guardian and the wisdom contained in the Vedas and the allied Vedic literature. He is well skilled in military warfare.[12] He has studied the scriptures; he possesses a terrific memory and has multi-faceted talents. Armed with noble thoughts and compassionate feelings, he talks in a balanced manner and is loved by the masses.[13]

Noble people like to meet him as rivers endeavor to submerge in deep oceans. He is a true Āryan, i.e. a noble person and views everybody without any favor.[14] It is always a visual delight to see him. He causes his mother’s love leap. He has the ocean-like depth and Himalaya-like patience.[15] His virtues have high benchmarks such as, his strength is as that of Viśṇu, his sight is sweet as that of moon, his anger towards wicked shows them the death, his forgiveness compares well with the earth, his sacrifice is like the proverbial donor Kubera, and in following truthfulness he equals anybody as such.[16] The above description from Devarṣi Nārada covered Rāma’s physical, mental, intellectual and spiritual faculties.

Rāmāyaṇa has discussed all these qualities in great detail, which we will not be able to reproduce. Therefore, only some inspiring events from his life will be mentioned. Rāma’s qualities were of such a nature that everybody in the family loved him. When his coronation was announced then the entire palace was in jubilation. However, Kaikeyī’s maid Mantharā was full of envy and the latter approached the former. Though Kaikeyī was asleep at that moment yet she woke her up and said, “You are deep in slumber while the problems wait at your doors. Tomorrow Emperor Daśaratha will pass on his position to Rāma. The emperor has played a mischief by sending Bharata to the latter’s maternal grandparents so that Rāma may occupy the seat without any obstacle. Once Rāma occupies the seat then his mother Kauśalyā will earn everybody’s respect and nobody would care for you.”

On hearing this, Kaikeyī was very happy within. Smilingly, she offered an ornament to the maid for bringing this good news[17], and said: “You have brought very auspicious news to me. For this act of yours, what else should I do to you?[18] I don’t differentiate between Rāma and Bharata, and therefore, I feel very happy to learn that the emperor has decided for the coronation of Rāma.[19] You deserve to get the best thing. No other news could bring more happiness to me than the news of Rāma’s imminent coronation as the next king of Ayodhyā. You may ask for a boon for bringing this good news and I will definitely deliver the same to you.”[20]

Mantharā became disturbed on hearing the above from Kaikeyī. She tried to cajole the latter by saying, “Rāma occupying the seat doesn’t augur well for you and your son. This is inauspicious.” And, she removed the ornament that Kaikeyī had just gifted her and threw it away. She tried to excite Kaikeyī on similar lines but to no avail. Kaikeyī wasn’t moved by such divisive talks and she began to praise Rāma as such, “Hey! Śrī Rāma is knowledgeable about Dharma, possesses high virtues, has full control on his senses, is humble and grateful, is a repository of truthfulness and purity, and is the eldest son of the emperor, and therefore, he deserves to be the Crown Prince.[21] May he have the long life to serve his brothers and servants as his father did. Why are you so envious from the news of his coronation?[22] Indeed, I have more love for Rāma than I have for Bharata because he cares for me more than he does for his mother Kauśalyā.[23] If Rāma is occupying the seat than it’s as good as Bharata being on the seat because Rāma considers his brothers as his own self.”[24]

Kaikeyī was well-disposed towards Rāma and it was so for a good reason. Rāma had so many virtuous qualities that indeed everybody loved him. But Mantharā was not easy to give up. Finally, Kaikeyī yielded to her as it happens that one pays a heavy price for being in the company of the low-quality persons. Tulasīdāsa has described this turn around in Kaikeyī by saying, bad company harms everybody and even the most intelligent people tend to deflect their intellectual balance under the influence of a wicked person.[25]

Kaikeyī was finally in the grip of Mantharā and the former decided to ask for the two boons that her husband had once promised in a battleground when she had saved his life. Her boons were: 1. Bharata should be coroneted, and 2. Rāma should spend 14 years in forests. If he doesn’t accept the two boons then she would commit suicide, this is how she utilized the two boons.

On hearing these two boons, Daśratha uttered several things to dissuade her but Kaikeyī remained adamant. Now Rāma was summoned and he greeted his father and step-mother Kaikeyī, too. On seeing that his father is in a disturbed state of mind, he inquired from her if he is upset from him on any account: “Have I committed any wrong doing?” Kaikeyī said that your father would like to say something to you but he is unable to do so due to some reasons. If you promise to carry out his words whatever they are, then I might as well tell you what the matter is. Rāma was unhappy to hear this and he said to Kaikeyī, “Your assessment was not correct because I am so much obedient to my father that I would even jump into a fire, or dive into a deep ocean, or drink poison should he order so. Emperor is my father, teacher and well-wisher. There is nothing that I will not obey for his sake.”

“Therefore, please tell me what he desires. I promise that I will obey them accordingly. I am not in the habit of doing double talking.”[26] On hearing Rāma’s promise, Kaikeyī said, “Once I had saved your father’s life in a battlefield then he had offered two boons to me. Today I have asked for those two boons. The first boon asks for the kingdom for Bharata. The second boon seeks your exile of 14 years in forests. You should act accordingly and set forth for the forests.” Rāma heard this and remained unfazed. Unmoved, he said to Kaikeyī, “O Mother! For this matter I would have obeyed you direct and there was no need to disturb the father. It seems that you didn’t trust me that you didn’t say this to me direct and got them said by the father.”[27]

Would anybody be able to show any such example in the world history when somebody obeyed the step mother’s invalid words and gave up the kingdom to live in forests? This is the glory of the Raghukula (Raghu ancestry) which prevailed due to the sacrifice of Rāma. When Kaushalyā tried to stop Rāma from going to forests the Rāma said, “O Mother! I don’t have the courage to disobey my father.” When Lakṣmaṇa expressed his anger and enthusiasm by dissuading Rāma from proceeding to forests by saying that, “I don’t like Rāma going to the forests. The father has temporarily lost his mental balance due to the charm of the lady despite his old age. O’ Brother! You take the reins of the kingdom and I will kill anybody opposing you who might be taking Bharata’s side.”

“If the father is taking such steps due to the undue attachment to Kaikeyī then we should forego such attachment and imprison him or even kill him. Because even if a teacher loses his wisdom to distinguish between duties and harmful functions and moves towards wrong directions then it becomes our duty to punish him. One who is unduly attached to Kaikeyī and is quite old, such a father deserves to be killed because of his unwise and cowardice acts.” Lakṣmaṇa continued. To this, Rāma replied as, “I know your valour, and patience, and your affection towards me. The highest is the Dharma. The truth lies within Dharma. The father’s words are within Dharma and hence, they are the loftiest ones. O’ Brave! Those who follow Dharma they don’t retreat on their words. I am unable to disobey the father. Therefore, you should follow the Dharma of the warriors and dislodge the thoughts that are contrary to our Arya traditions.”

“The karma that doesn’t lead to the four-fold objectives, namely Dharma, Prosperity, Enjoyment and Emancipation, need not be followed. Only those karma give rise to happiness that are in accordance with Dharma. One who desires money only becomes the focus of everybody’s envy. Pleasures void of Dharma deserve to be discarded. Hey Lakṣmaṇa ! Emperor Daśaratha is our father and king, too. Even if he orders us out of anger, joy or passion yet we should obey him as Dharma.” Rāma continued. Such were positive intentions Rāma harbored about his father. There were more such examples of his servitude towards his father.

When Rāma was to take leave from his father then the latter said, “Hey, Son of the Raghu Dynasty! I have lost the wisdom because of the word given to Kaikeyī. You can imprison me and declare yourself the king of Ayodhyā.”[28] Hearing this, Rāma said to him with folded hands, “May you rule the earth forever. I have no greed for the kingdom.”

“I have no desire for happiness, nor for the earth, nor for the means of enjoyments, and nor for the life as such. My only desire is that the word should prevail. May you remain truthful. I say this solemnly with my truthfulness and the legacy of my noble deeds. A father is said to be a Devatā (a person of the loftiest character) among the Devatās. For this reason, I want to assure you that I will live happily in forests as your obedient son. And, after 14 years in woods, I will return as my promise and seek your blessings again.” Rāma continued.[29]

Even at the time when Shri Rāma in the prime of his youth and was about to leave for forests, he showed no sign of pain or anger on his face.[30] He was willing to go to forests while leaving aside the kingdom of the entire earth. There wasn’t any sign that could affect the serenity maintained by the great soul. Great people maintain their serenity despite the dualities of respect and disrespect, joy and pain, and profit and loss as is seen with the sun that maintains the same colorful state at both the occasions of sunrise and sunset.[31] It is not an exaggeration to state that a great soul like Rāma wouldn’t be found in the entire human history.

Śrī Rāma’s Valour

If a man doesn’t possess valour, then he gains no respect even if bestowed with all virtuous qualities. Rāma is so well respected because he exhibited highest level of valour in his life equaled by none. Once upon a time, Maharṣī Viśvāmitra approached Daśratha and made a request to him. The former was suffering on the account of two powerful wicked persons named Mārīca and Subāhu who were quite talented in use of sophisticated war machines. They used to disturb Viśvāmitra’s Yajňās (noble deeds and experiments), which he used to perform for the welfare of humanity at large. Viśvāmitra requested Daśratha to depute his eldest son Rāma, as he alone could kill these two wicked persons.[32] At that occasion, Rāma wasn’t even 16. This caused Daśratha to worry lest Rāma may be harmed by the two wicked men. However, Vaśiṣṭha persuaded Daśratha and he finally ordered Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa to go with Viśvāmitra.

On the way, Viśvāmitra. Briefed them that the forest is void of any humans and has become the abode of a wicked woman named Tāṭakā who was the wife of Sunda. She caused fear in the minds of the people living there and everybody had left that particular forest for good. Now the two princes should kill her to make the forest a peaceful place and thus cause welfare of the people. This is the Dharma of a Kshatriya. After hearing Viśvāmitra Rāma said with folded hands, “He Maharṣe! I am ready to obey your command of killing Tāṭakā for the welfare of the citizens, noble souls and our cattle.” Then he lifted his bow and made a flutter of deafening sound by vibrating its cord. Immediately, Tāṭakā ran towards Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa. She had the skill to adopt different figures at her will. She had a huge and frightening body. She demonstrated illusions in different manner but Rāma prevailed and killed her with his solitary fatal arrow. Seeing his valour, Viśvāmitra taught many new warfare techniques to Rāma and even gave him new gadgets with skills to utilize them because he found Rāma as the suitable candidate for this stream of knowledge. Thereafter, Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa followed Viśvāmitra to his monastery where they vanished all the wicked people who used to interfere in Viśvāmitra’s activities. This was the first event when Rāma demonstrated his extraordinary valour. The second occasion appeared when he went to Sītā during the latter’s public promise to marry that man who could lift and control a particularly great bow.

That bow was immovable for many great warriors but that was almost effortlessly broken into two pieces by Rāma. Paraśurāma was known to be a great warrior who had defeated many others in 21 battles and who was too proud of his successes in battles. He was humbled by none other than Rāma. It is said that Rāma alone killed fourteen thousand adversaries and two wicked men known as Khara-dūṣaṇa and Triśirā in Pañcavati. Death of Bālī, Rāvaṇa and Kumbhakaraṇa took place in the hands of Rāma, too. Rāma’s valour has been described through a metaphor. It is said that once an ocean came on the way of Rāma . Rāma talked sweetly in his usual manner but to no avail. Then he said to Lakṣmaṇa that there were wicked people who treated the sweet words of gentlemen as the latter’s weakness and did not yield.[33] There are occasions when peace doesn’t work and nor does it bring victory. In such instances, the force must be used. Saying this, he raised his bow and the ocean immediately relented. Such was the result of his valour.

The skill of maintaining Dharma in difficult and conflicting occasions brought him the title as if he balanced his life amongst the four endeavours of Dharma, Artha, Kāma and Mokṣa – Dharma, Prosperity, Enjoyment and Emancipation. When Rāma killed Bālī then Bālī had characterized as Rāma doing an act of injustice by killing the latter, and hence, it was against Dharma. Then Rāma argued successfully and proved that Bālī’s understanding of Dharma was erroneous. He further said, “For the reason that you forcibly cohabited with your younger brother’s wife to satisfy your lust who otherwise deserved to be your daughter-in-law. This is the reason you deserve to be killed because one who approaches his daughter, sister or younger brother’s wife with a lustful intention must be killed as a lawful punishment.”[34]

The second example is that protecting the one who has sought asylum. When Vibhīṣaṇa sought Rāma’s asylum then Sugrīva and some others thought as if it was a mastermind of Rāvaṇa. Then they advised Rāma to kill Vibhīṣaṇa. But Rāma quotes from the Raj-Dharma (principles related to the political prisoners) and states – “even if an enemy seeks protection by folded hands as a prayer then he shouldn’t be killed. An enemy may be in misery or out of his pride. If he presents himself to his adversary’s camp then noble people should protect him even at the cost of their own life.”

Śrī Rāma’s Gratefulness

Vālmīki describes Rāma’s gratefulness thus: with great control on his mental functions, he was able to overlook even hundreds of crimes committed by others. He was not in the habit of harping on anybody’s wrongdoing. However, if someone helped him even once then Rāma would remember the helping act forever with a sense of gratitude.[35]

After his coronation when he bids bye to Hanumāna then he recalls every helpful act of Hanumāna. He hugs him and says, “Hey Hanumāna! You have obliged me with so many things you have done for me, that I can sacrifice my life for every single act of those. I will be ever grateful to you for your help. I would like all your helpful acts to remain within me lest there is an opportunity for me to return them to you because such a possibility would occur only when you are in distress and I do not want you to be in distress. So, let your acts remain with me as unreturned gratitude from you.”[36]

Śrī Rāma’s Righteousness

Rāma Chandra was a man of character like nobody. His loyalty to his wife is well known. When he went to Janakpurī with Viśvāmitra then he saw Sītā for the first time in Puṣpa-Vāṭikā and then he was instantly moved by her pristine beauty. He was astonished. This was first such event for him. Void of any lustful feeling, he said to Lakṣamaṇa that he had felt something different though he had hitherto maintained purity in his heart. Only God knew what had transpired within him after seeing this out-of-the-world beauty. He was confident that he was not on a wrong path as he had never seen any woman lustfully. However, this turned out to be the precursor that Sītā became his wife. It was the victory of his self-confidence. Rāma maintained this confidence throughout life.[37]

There was an occasion when Rāvaṇa’s sister Śūrpaṇakhā approached Rāma for marital alliance between them. She argued that there was no women as beautiful as she was and there was no one as handsome as Rāma was. She claimed that she had gone around the world and had failed to find a suitable match for herself and remained unmarried for this reason. Now, having seen Rāma, she felt that she can marry someone.[38] Rāma didn’t reciprocate and nor did he look at her. However, he grasped her bad intentions because he could feel that she was a married woman though she claimed to be unmarried. Then, in a lighter vein, he looked at Sītā and said to the other woman, “Just the way you are unmarried, so is my younger brother Lakṣmaṇa.”[39] This event exhibits the sterling character of Rāma. Will his followers follow his character, too? One poet has beautifully captured the greatness of Rāma’s character and expressed it thus. When Rāvaṇa abducted Sītā then he showed a number of fearsome and attractive proposals but Sītā rebuked him every time because she was so loyal to Rāma. Then somebody suggested Rāvaṇa to pretend to become Rāma and approach her and then Sītā may be willing to accept him. Rāvaṇa said that he had already tried this and remained unsuccessful. When he tended to look like Rāma then others’ women appeared to him as his mother![40]

In the same context, let us discuss the character of Lakṣmaṇa too. After Sītā was abducted in the forests then, Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa approached Sugrīva in Kiṣkindhā. At that time, Lakṣmaṇa collected some ornaments and brought them to Rāma. These ornaments were thrown by Sītā while she was being abducted by Rāvaṇa probably to work as clues to Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa about the directions she was being taken away in. Rāma asked Lakṣmaṇa to examine if those ornaments could be of his Bhābhī (i.e. sister-in-law, brother’s wife). To this Lakṣmaṇa said that he couldn’t be sure about the ornaments worn on the ears and arms because he always looked at her feet only![41] The Raghu-dynasty was known for its lofty character.

Śrī Rāma’s Love for His Brothers

Śrī Rāma’s love for his brothers is legendary in nature. He was always concerned about his brothers’ general well being. Lest their feelings were hurt or they fell in despair, he would intentionally lose a game so that they won. When Bharata came down to Citrakūṭa to meet Rāma then Lakṣmaṇa suspected a foul play on part of Bharata and proposed to Rāma that Bharata should be killed. Then Rāma persuaded, “Hey Lakṣmaṇa! Having pledged to honor the father’s word, now if I kill Bharata and snatch his kingdom then the history will not speak well of me and what will I gain by having a kingdom when my name and the kingdom’s name have been tarnished.?”

“What we gain by destruction of our loved ones and close ones is almost like food contaminated with poison that ought to be discarded, and I will never accept it. Hey, Lakṣmaṇa! I would like to tell you in the form of my solemn pledge, that all my attempts towards Dharma, Prosperity, Enjoyment and the kingdom of the entire earth is for the overall benefits of my brothers only.” Rāma continued.

Rāma further said, “Hey, Son of Sumitrā ! I desire the kingdom as the property and happiness of my brothers only and this I say solemnly as I touch my bow. The lands surrounded and encircled by the oceans are not out of my reach but I have no intention to acquire even the Supreme Lord’s position by complying Adharma, what is contrary to Dharma.”

“Hey, Lakṣmaṇa! If I obtain any happiness by disassociating from Bharata, yourself and Śatrughna then may such ill-gotten joys vanish by the fire immortal. Hey, Brave! Bharata has genuine and true love for his brothers. I love him as much as I do my own life. I suspect that when he returned to Ayodhyā and learned that Sītā and I have put on the monks’ robes and left for forests then he must have been struck by grief. Therefore, bound by the family traditions based on love, he must have decided to meet us with a heart filled with affection. There cannot be any other purpose of his visit. He must have expressed his displeasure to his mother Kaikeyī and even rebuked her, and taken necessary action to revive the father into normalcy, and now he intended to offer the kingdom to me. It is quite in order for him to come and meet us at this time. It is quite appropriate for us to meet him. He simply cannot harbor any intention to cause any harm to us.” Rāma continued.

Rāma further said, “When was it that Bharata ever misbehaved with you to the extent that you are terrified by him and you are suspecting a foul game on his behalf? On his arrival, do not speak any unmeasured word. If you say so then it would be treated as if it was said to me. Hey Son of Sumitrā ! How is it ever possible for a son to kill his own father? Or, a brother can take the life of his own dear brother? If you say such strong words for the sake of kingdom then I will ask Bharata to offer the kingdom to you. And, if I propose this to Bharata then I am very certain that he would obey me immediately.” Rāma trusted his brothers to such an extent. If brother-to-brother relationships in today’s world reach such heights then the world can truly become a heaven.

Śrī Rāma’s Spiritual Knowledge

Śrī Rāma had acquired the enlightening knowledge about the true nature of our soul. This enabled him to maintain the calm even during the extremes of pleasures and pains. Also, his enlightening knowledge made him conquer over anger. Of course, when firmness was required for public welfare then he displayed the same but not for utter selfish purposes. For this reason, he didn’t get angry even with Mantharā who was instrumental in Rāma being deprived of coronation and sent to forests. He didn’t even mention Mantharā’s crime. There was an occasion during their forest sojourn when Lakṣmaṇa recalled Kaikeyī’s ill-feelings then Rāma intervened by saying that she is the former’s middle mother and she shouldn’t be the subject of his rebuke.[42]

Śrī Rāma’s Love for People

Rāma always remained engaged in the welfare of the people. His subjects loved him greatly, too. When he was proceeding to the forests then the people of Ayodhyā wanted to accompany him to the forests. For sake of the people, he agreed to be accompanied by his darling wife Sītā to honor people’s insistence. Thus, we see that Rāma has always maintained highest traditions and standards in public and private life. Not only that he protected the true āryan culture but he embodied himself by the same so as to present an ideal example to the world.

  1. Some Wrong Notions about Rāmāyaṇa and Their Corrections

Śrī Rāma was a Great Person and not God

Rāmāyaṇa by Vālmīki is an authentic account of Rāma’s history except for some interpolated verses. Nowhere in Rāmāyaṇa , Rāma had been characterized as God or God-incarnation. Vālmīki had inquired from Nārada about the noblest person on the earth and not about God in the following words, “Hey Maharṣe ! In the present times who is the human being who possesses greatest virtues, valour, Dharma, gratitude, truthfulness, steadfastness, knowledge and spiritual strength? Only you would know such a person with all these superb qualities and I am keen to listen to such a description from you.”[43]

The above clearly demonstrates that Maharṣī Vālmīki views Rāma as a great individual human being and not God as such. As will be seen later in the present book, Rāma doesn’t fit in the nature and characteristics of God which would be described later. The fortieth chapter of Yajurveda describes God’s characteristics as one who is void of physical body, wounds, nerves and veins and who doesn’t take birth. God with such attributes has been described in the Vedas, Upanishads and the Six Books of Vedic Philosophy. Rāma had a physical body and he was born and he was not all-pervading and Omni-present. For these reasons, he cannot be God and he was a great person rather.

Let us analyze the Sanskrit word Bhagavān(भगवान) formed from the root bhag and the suffix van, which appears after it. This would mean ‘one who possesses Bhaga as the similar word ‘Dhanavān means – one who possesses wealth Dhana. There are six possible meanings of Bhaga, which are: 1. wealth of all kinds, 2. money, 3. fame,

  1. aura, 5. knowledge and the 6. mental state after one has renounced the worldly possessions.[44] Any one who possesses even one out of the above six types of wealth may be characterized as ‘Bhagavān. Rāma possessed all six kinds of wealth to varying degrees, and therefore, he has been justifiably referred to as Bhagavān Rāma in Rāmāyaṇa. With the same token, Krishna and other personalities are referred to as ‘Bhagavān, too. Rāma himself was a devotee of God and used to perform the rituals of Brahma-Yajña and Deva-Yajña. If he was God himself, then whom did he worship? After killing Rāvaṇa, when his deputies referred to him as the guardian and custodian of the entire world then Rāma had replied thus, “I consider myself a human being known as Rāma, son of Daśaratha.”[45] On another occasion, when Sugrīva and Rāma were together then Vālmīki referred to him as Nara – a human being while Sugrīva had been characterized as Vānara, i.e. a human being living in the tribal areas. Both were together on an occasion and shared their emotions.[46]

Furthermore, when Sītā was freed from Rāvaṇa’s captivity and brought to Rāma, then Rāma told her, “When Rāvaṇa had abducted you then you must have suffered a great deal. Now, the human mortal within me has conquered over those events.”[47] There are numerous instances in Rāmāyaṇa proving that Rāma was a human being. He performed so well in his life that he became an ideal for everyone of us. He is often referred to as ‘Maryādā Puruṣottama’(मर्यादा पुरुषोत्तम), because he functioned within the wise domain as determined by the classical Vedic literature. A poet does describe certain episodes that tend to become exaggerated. Prudence needs to be exercised while reading such poetic descriptions.

Śrī Hanumāna was a Human and not a Monkey

Many people believe that Hanumāna was a monkey but the truth is that he was a human being and not a monkey. He was a superior diplomat, brave, fearless, warrior and knowledgeable in scriptures. Rāmāyaṇa describes an instance when Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa were strolling through a particular forest then Sugrīva deputed Hanumāna to inquire their antecedents lest they be spies of an enemy. Hanumāna approached them and introduced himself and asked their purpose in being in forests. This dialogue demonstrates the prolific language Hanumāna commanded. Rāma mentioned to Lakṣmaṇa that Hanumāna has the ability to articulate in a superior manner, “One who isn’t educated in Rig-Veda, who didn’t practice Yajur-veda Lakṣmaṇa and one who is not learned in Sāma-Veda, cannot talk so well. Definitely, he has thorough knowledge of grammar because even after speaking for a good length there was not a single error in the language.”[48]

A monkey cannot have the capability of this sort that he can study Vedas and other scriptures. Thus, it is very clear that he was a human being only. Historians have told us quite a lot about the people inhabiting the tribal areas in forests which can be summed as follows. In the prehistoric times, the human groups used to identify themselves with an animal, tree, plant, mountain, etc. They would generally wear the symbol of that identification. Even today we find several human groups belonging to the monkey and bear groups. The poet Mātṛ-Gupta of Bengal considered himself as a member of the Hanumāna lineage and used to fix a tail with himself. Vīra Sāvarkara was imprisoned in the Andaman Islands and he reported about a tribal community there who would fix a tail to themselves. Also, there are no species on earth where male has tail and female does not.

The above proves that the people used the monkey’s tail as a symbol and used to put it on to identify themselves as belonging to the ‘monkey’ community. Rāmāyaṇa doesn’t describe the tails of Sugrīva, Bālī, Aṅgada, etc. And nor about the tail of any female member of such a community. Hanumāna’s tail has been mentioned primarily in the context of ‘Burning of Laṅkā’. This implies that the members of that community used to put on the ornamental tail on certain special occasions.

III. Selected Verses from Rāmāyaṇa

Vibhīṣaṇa began to cry with grief after seeing Rāvaṇa killed by Rāma in the battlefield. Then Rāma consoled him saying that there shouldn’t be grief when a brave man dies in the battlefield with valour intact. Later Rāma directed him to conduct cremation,

  1. “Hey Vibhīṣaṇa! The enmity lives until death. On death, the enmity dies, too. Now our objectives have been realized. Now he is my brother as he is yours, and so, go ahead with his cremation.” This is an example of Rāma’s lofty ideals.[49]

Virtues and Vices

Rāmāyaṇa consists of a number of sayings about virtues and vices.

  1. “There is no doubt that the doer of a vicious act is rewarded with due punishment at a right time.”[50]

  2. “One reaps what one sows.”[51]

  3. “The result of a sinful act is pain and sorrow, which the person himself/herself have to go through. A person who does sinful acts is basically on the suicidal path i.e. self-destruction.”[52]

  4. Mandodarī, Rāvaṇa’s wife says on seeing his dead body, “Virtuous karma lead to positive rewards and a sinner will definitely find pain and misery on account of the sinful acts. Vibhīṣaṇa has been rewarded with pleasant rewards and you had to go through pain.”[53]

  5. “People in the world obtain rewards in the forms of prosperity, beautiful bodies, strength, wealth, bravery and children, etc. after having performed the virtuous karma.”[54]

  6. “One should not allow himself/herself to be grief stricken as the grief has serious and quite harmful effects. It can destroy a person just as an angry snake would even kill an approaching child.”[55]

  7. “Those who are absorbed in grief all the time, can never be happy. They have no energy, desires and lose the glow from their faces.”[56]

  8. “Even if one intends to cover his/her inner feelings, the facial expressions do reveal it. The expressions of an individual do reveal the inner emotions.”[57] There is another saying in Sanskrit, “The body language such as the gestures, the way one walks, the body movements, the speech, the features on the face reveal what transpires within the mind.”[58]

  9. “There may even be a way for a cow-killer, drunkard, thief or an person who has committed an adultery to repent, but there is no mechanism or a way by which an ungrateful person can repent or clean his/her sins.”[59]

  10. In the absence of Sītā, Lakṣmaṇa says to Rāma when the later is grief-struck, “Courage is a powerful force. There is nothing superior to it. Nothing is impossible for a courageous person. Those who maintain courage can achieve their objective against all odds. Remaining courageous, we can find Sītā”[60]

Reference :

[1] रक्षिता स्वस्य धर्मस्य। वेदवेदाङ्ग तत्त्वज्ञः। (वाल्मीकि रामायण बालकाण्ड 1.14)

Rakṣitā svasya dharmasya, veda vedāṅga tattvajñaḥ. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa Bālakāṇda 1.14)

[2] मा निषाद प्रतिष्ठां त्वमगमः शाश्वतीः समाः। यत्क्रौंच मिथुनादेकमवधीः काममोहितम्।।

According to the Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa itself, Maharṣi Vālmīki was the 10th child of Prachetā Ṛṣī. His hermitage was on the bank of Tamasā river. One day when he went to bathe in the river, he witnessed a heart breaking seen. A pair of wans was sitting on a tree. A hunter shat dead one of the birds by his arrow. He became sad and expressed “Oh hunter you will wonder around with sadness for a long time since you have killed one of the birds who were mating. This supposedly was the reason he wrote the epic Rāmāyaṇa.

Mā Niṣāda pratiṣṭhāṁ tvam agamaḥ śāśvatīḥ samāḥ, Yat krauñca mithunād Ekam avadhīḥ kāma mohitam.

[3] को न्वस्मिन्! साम्प्रतं लोके गुणवान् कश्च वीर्यवान्। धर्मज्ञश्च कृतज्ञश्च सत्यवाक्यो दृढ़व्रतः। (वाल्मीकि रामायण, बालकाण्ड 1.2)

Ko nvasmin! sāmprataṁ loke guṇavān kaśca vīryavān, Dharmajñśca kṛtajñaśca satyavākyo dṛḍhavrataḥ. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇda 1.2)

[4] चारित्रेण च को युक्तः सर्वभूतेषु को हितः। विद्वान् कः कः समर्थश्च कश्चैकप्रियदर्शनः।। (वही, 1.3)

Cāritreṇa ca ko yuktaḥ sarvabhūteṣu ko hitaḥ, Vidvān kaḥ kaḥ samarthaśca kaścaika priyadarśanaḥ. (vahī 1.3)

[5] आत्मवान् को जितक्रोधो द्युतिमान् कोऽनसूयकः। कस्य बिभ्यति देवाश्च जातरोषस्य संयुगे।। (वही, 1.4)

Ātmavān ko Jitakrodho dyutimān ko’nasūyakaḥ. Kasya bibhyati devāśca jātaroṣasya samyuge. (vahī, 1.4)

[6] इक्ष्वाकुवंशप्रभवो रामो नाम जनैः श्रुतः। नियतात्मा महावीर्यो द्युतिमान् धृतिमान् वशी।। (वही, 1.8)

Ikṣvākuvanśa-prabhavo rāmo nāma Janaiḥ śrutaḥ Niyatātmā mahā-vīryo dyutimān dhṛtimān vaśī. (vahī, 1.8)

[7] बुद्धिमान् नीतिमान् वाग्मी श्रीमाञ्छत्रुनिबर्हणः। विपुलांसो महाबाहुः कम्बुग्रीवो महाहनुः।। (वही, 1.9)

Buddhimān nītimān vāgmī śrīmāñchatru-nibarhaṇaḥ. Vipulāṁso mahābāhuḥ kambu-grīvo mahāhanuḥ. (vahī, 1.9)

[8] महोरस्को महेष्वासो गूढजत्रुररिन्दमः। आजानुबाहुः सुशिराः सुललाटः सुविक्रमः।। (वही, 1.10)

Mahorasko maheṣvāso gūḍha-jatrur arindamaḥ. Ājānu-bāhuḥ suśirāḥ sulalāṭaḥ suvikramaḥ. (vahī, 1.10)

[9] समः समविभक्ताङ्गः स्निग्धवर्णः प्रतापवान्। पीनवक्षा विशालाक्षो लक्ष्मीवाञ्छुभलक्षणः।। (वही, 1.11)

Samaḥ sama-vibhakt-āṅgaḥ snigdha-varṇaḥ pratāpavān. Pīnavakṣā viśālākṣo lakṣmīvāñchubha-lakṣaṇaḥ. (vahī, 1.11)

[10] धर्मज्ञः सत्यसंधश्च प्रजानां च हिते रतः। यशस्वी ज्ञानसम्पन्नः शुचिर्वश्यः समाधिमान्।। (वही, 1.12)

Dharmajñaḥ satya-sandhaśca prajānām ca hite rataḥ. Yaśasvī jñāna-sampannaḥ śucir-vaśyaḥ samādhimān. (vahī, 1.12)

[11] प्रजापतिसमः श्रीमान् धाता रिपुनिषूदनः। रक्षिताः जीवलोकस्य धर्मस्य परिरक्षिता।। (वही, 1.13)

Prajāpatisamaḥ śrīmān dhātā ripuniṣūdanaḥ. Rakṣitāḥ jīvalokasya dharmasya parirakṣitā. (vahī, 1.13)

[12] रक्षिता स्वस्य धर्मस्य स्वजनस्य च रक्षिता। वेदवेदाङ्गतत्त्वज्ञो धनुर्वेदे च निष्ठितः।। (वही, 1.14)

Rakṣitā svasya dharmasya svajanasya ca rakṣitā. Veda-vedāṅga-tattvajño dhanurvede ca niṣṭhitaḥ. (vahī, 1.14)

[13] सर्वशास्त्रार्थतत्त्वज्ञः स्मृतिमान् प्रतिभानवान्। सर्वलोकप्रियः साधुरदीनात्मा विचक्षणः।। (वही, 1.15)

Sarva-śāstrārtha-tattvajñaḥ smṛtimān Pratibhānavān. Sarva-loka-priyaḥ sādhur-adīnātmā vicakṣaṇaḥ. (vahī, 1.15)

[14] सर्वदाभिगतः सदभिः समुद्र इव सिन्धुभिः। आर्यः सर्वसमश्चैव सदैव प्रियदर्शनः।। (वही, 1.16)

Sarvadābhigataḥ sadabhiḥ samudra iva sindhubhiḥ. Āryaḥ sarva-samaścaiva sadaiva priya-darśanaḥ. (vahī, 1.16)

[15] स च सर्वगुणोपेतः कौसल्यानन्दवर्धनः। समुद्र इव गाम्भीर्ये धैर्येण हिमवानिव।। (वही, 1.17)

Sa ca sarva-guṇopetaḥ Kausalyānanda-vardhanaḥ. Samudra iva gāmbhīrye dhairyeṇa himavān iva. (vahī, 1.17)

[16] विष्णुना सदृशो वीर्ये सोमवत्प्रियदर्शनः। कालाग्निसदृशः क्रोधे क्षमया पृथिवीसमः।। धनदेन समस्त्यागे सत्ये धर्म इवापरः।। (वही, 1.18)

Viṣṇunā sadṛśo vīrye somavat-priya-darśanaḥ. Kālāgni-sadṛśaḥ Krodhe kṣamayā pṛthivī-samaḥ.

Dhanadena samas-tyāge satye dharma ivāparaḥ. (vahī, 1.18)

[17] अतीव सा तु संतुष्टा कैकेयी विस्मयान्विता। दिव्यमाभरणं तस्यै कुब्जायै प्रददौ शुभम्।। (वा.राम. अयोध्याकाण्ड 7.32)

Atīva sā tu santuṣtā Kaikeyī vismayānvitā. Divyam-ābharaṇaṁ tasyai kubjāyai pradadau śubham. (vā. rām. ayodhyākāṇda, 7.32)

[18] दत्त्वा त्वाभरणं तस्यै कुब्जायै प्रमदोत्तमा। कैकेयी मन्थरां हृष्टा पुनरेवाब्रवीदिदम्। इदं तु मन्थरे मह्यमाख्यातं परमं प्रियम्। एतन्मे प्रियमाख्यातं किं वा भूयः करोमि ते।। (वही, 7.33-34)

Dattvā tvābharaṇam tasyai kubjāyai pramadottamā. Kaikeyī mantharām hṛṣtā punar evābravīd idam.

Idam tu manthare mahyam ākhyātam paramam priyam. Etanme priyam ākhyātam kim vā bhūyaḥ Karomi te. (vahī, 7.33-34)

[19] रामे वा भरते वाहं विशेषं नोपलक्षये। तस्मात् तुष्टास्मि यद् राजा रामं राज्येऽभिषेक्ष्यति।। (वही, 7.35)

Rāme vā bharate vāham viśeṣam nopalakṣaye. Tasmāt tuṣtasmi yad rājā rāmaṁ rājye’bhiṣekṣyati. (vahī, 7.35)

[20] न मे परं किंचिदितो ,वरं पुनः प्रियं प्रियेर्हे सुवचं वनोऽमृतम्।

तथा ह्यवोचस्त्वमतः प्रियोत्तरं ,वरं परं ते प्रददामि तं वृणु।। (वही, 7.36)

Na me paraṁ kiñcidito varaṁ punaḥ Priyaṁ Priyerhe suvacaṁ vano’mṛtam.

Tathā hyavocas tvam ataḥ Priyottaraṁ Varaṁ paraṁ te pradadāmi taṁ vṛṇu. (vahī, 7.36)

[21] धर्मज्ञो गुणवान् दान्तः कृतज्ञः सत्यवाञ्छुचिः। रामो राजसुतो ज्येष्ठो यौवराज्यमतोऽर्हति।। (वही, 8.14)

Dharmajño guṇavān dāntaḥ kṛtajñaḥ satyavāñchuciḥ. Rāmo rājasuto Jyeṣṭho yauvarājyam ato’ rhati. (vahī,8.14)

[22] भ्रातॄन् भृत्यांश्च दीर्घायुः पितृवत् पालयिष्यति। संतप्यसे कथं कुब्जे श्रुत्वा रामाभिषेचनम्।। (वही, 8.15)

Bhrātṝn bhṛtyāṁśca dīrghāyuḥ pitṛvat pālayiṣyati. Santapyase Katham Kubje śrutvā rāmābhiṣecanam. (vahī, 8.15)

[23] यथा वै भरतो मान्यस्तथा भूयोऽपि राघवः। कौसल्यातोऽतिरिक्तं च मम शुश्रूषते बहु।। (वही, 8.18)

Yathā vai bharato mānyas tathā bhūyo’pi rāghavaḥ. Kausalyāto’tiriktam ca mama śuśrūṣate bahu. (vahī, 8.18)

[24] राज्यं यदि हि रामस्य भरतस्यापि तत् तदा। मन्यते हि यथाऽऽत्मानं तथा भ्रातॄंस्तु राघवः।। (वही, 8.19)

Rājyaṁ yadi hi rāmasya bharatasyāpi tat tadā. Manyate hi yathātmānaṁ tathā bhrātṝṁstu rāghavaḥ. (vahī, 8.19)

[25] को न कुसंगति पाई नसाई। रहइ न नीच मतें चतुराई।। (रामचरितमानस अयोध्याकाण्ड, 24)

Ko na kusaṅgati pāī nasāī. Rahai na nīca mateṁ caturāī. (Rāmacaritamānasa Ayodhyākāṇḍa, 24)

[26] रामो द्विर् न भाषते। Rāmo dvir na bhāṣate.

[27] न न्यूनं मयि कैकेयि किंचिदाशंससे गुणान्। यद् राजानमवोचस्त्वं ममेश्वरतरा सती।। (वाल्मीकि रामायण अयोध्याकाण्ड, 19-24)

Na nyūnaṁ mayi kaikeyi Kiñcid āśaṁsase guṇān. Yad rājānam avocas tvaṁ mameśvara tarā satī. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa Ayodhyākaṇḍa, 19-24)

[28] अहं राघव कैकेय्या वरदानेन मोहितः। अयोध्यायां त्वमेवाद्य भव राजा निगृह्य माम्।। (वाल्मीकि रामायण अयोध्याकाण्ड, 34.26)

Ahaṁ rāghava kaikeyyā varadānena mohitaḥ. Ayodhyāyāṁ tvamevādya bhava rājā nigṛhya mām. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa Ayodhyākāṇḍa, 34.26)

[29] नहि मे काङ्क्षितं राज्यं सुखमात्मनि वा प्रियम्। यथानिदेशं कर्तुं वै तवैव रघुनन्दन।। (वाल्मीकि रामायण अयोध्याकाण्ड, 34.45)

नैवाहं राज्यमिच्छामि न सुखं न च मेदिनीम्। नैव सर्वानिमान् कामन् न स्वर्गं न च जीवितुम्। (वही, 34.47)

त्वामहं सत्यमिच्छामि नानृतं पुरुषर्षभ। प्रत्यक्षं तव सत्येन सुकृतेन च ते शपे।। (वही, 34.48)

पिता हि दैवतं तात देवतानामपि स्मृतम्। तस्मात् दैवतमित्येव करिष्यामि पितुर्वचः।। (वही, 34.52)

नव पञ्च च वर्षाणि वनवासे विहृत्य ते। पुनः पादौ ग्रहीष्यामि प्रतिज्ञान्ते नराधिपः।। (वही, 34.29)

Ṇahi me kāṅkṣitaṁ rājyaṁ sukhamātmani vā priyam. Yathā nideśaṁ Kartuṁ vai tavaiva raghunandana. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa Ayodhyākāṇḍa, 34.45)

Naivāhaṁ rājyam icchāmi na sukhaṁ na ca medinīm. Naiva sarvān imān kāman na svargaṁ na ca jīvitum. (vahī, 34.47)

Tvām ahaṁ satyam icchāmi nānṛtaṁ puruṣarṣabha. Pratyakṣaṁ tava satyena sukṛtena ca te śape. (vahī, 34.48)

Pitā hi daivataṁ tāta devatānāmapi smṛtam. Tasmāt daivatam ityeva kariṣyāmi pitur vacaḥ. (vahī, 34.52)

Nava pañca ca varṣāṇi vanavāse vihṛtya te. Punaḥ pādau grahīṣyāmi pratijñānte narādhipaḥ. (vahī, 34.29)

[30] न वनं गन्तुकामस्य त्यजतश्च वसुन्धराम्। सर्वलोकातिगस्येव लक्ष्यते चित्त-वि क्रिया।। (वा.रा.अयो. 19.33)

Na Vanaṁ gantukāmasya tyajataśca vasundharām. Sarvalokātigasyeva lakṣyate citta-vikriyā. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa Ayodhyākāṇḍa, 19.33)

[31] उदये सविता रक्तो रक्तश्चास्तमये तथा। सम्पत्तौ च विपत्तौ च महतामेकरूपता।।

Udaye savitā rakto raktaś cāstamaye tathā. Sampatau ca vipatau ca mahatām ekarūpatā.

[32] न च तौ राघवादन्यो हन्तुमुत्सहते पुमान्। (वा.रा.बाल. 19.12)

Na ca tau rāghavād anyo hantum utsahate pumān. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa bālakāṇḍa, 19.12)

[33] बिनय न मानत जलधि जड़ गए तीनि दिन बीति। बोले राम सकोप तब भय बिनु होइ न प्रीति।। (रामचरितमानस सुन्दरकाण्ड 57)

Binaya na mānata jaladhi jaḍa gaye tīni dina bīti. Bole rāma sakopa taba bhaya binu hoi na prīti. (Rāmacaritamānasa, Sundarakāṇḍa, 57)

[34] तदेतत् कारणं पश्य यदर्थं त्वं मया हतः। भ्रातुर्वर्तसि भार्यायां त्यक्त्वा धर्मं सनातनम्।।

औरसीं भगिनीं वापि भार्यां वाप्यनुजस्य यः। प्रचरेत नरः कामात् तस्य दण्डो वधः स्मृतः।। (वा.रा. किष्कि. 18.18, 22)

Tadetat Kāraṇaṁ paśya yadarthaṁ tvaṁ mayā hataḥ. Bhrātur vartasi bhāryāyāṁ tyaktvā dharmaṁ sanātanam.

Aurasīṁ bhaginīṁ vāpi bhāryāṁ vāpyanujasya yaḥ. Pracareta naraḥ kāmāt tasya daṇdo vadhaḥ smṛtaḥ.(Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa Kiṣkindhākāṇḍa,18.18, 22)

[35] न स्मरत्यपकारणं शतमप्यात्मवत्तया। कथंचिदुपकारेण कृतेनैकेन तुष्यति।।

Na smaraty apakāraṇaṁ śatam apyātmavat tayā. Kathañcid upakāreṇa kṛtenaikena tuṣyati.

[36] एकैकस्योपकारस्य प्राणान् दास्यामि ते कपे। शेषस्येहोपकाराणां भवाम ॠणिनो वयम्।।

मदङ्गे जीर्णतां यातु यत् त्वयोपकृतं कपे। नरः प्रत्युपकाराणामापत्स्वायाति पात्रताम्।। (वा.रा.उत्तर. 40.23, 24)

Ekaikasyopakārasya prāṇān dāsyāmi te kape. Śeṣasyehopakārāṇāṁ bhavāma ṝṇino vayam.

Madaṅge Jirṇatāṁ yātu yat tvayopakṛtaṁ kape. Naraḥ pratyupakārāṇām āpatsvāyāti pātratām. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa UttarKāṇḍa, 40.23, 24)

[37] जासु विलोकि अलौकिक सोभा। सहज पुनीत मोर मनु छोभा। सो सबु कारन जान बिधाता। फरकहिं सुभद अंग सुनु भ्राता।। (रामचरित. बाल. 2.31)

रघुबंसिन्ह कर सहज सुभाऊ। मनु कुपथ पगु धरइ न काऊ।।

मोहि अतिसय प्रतीति मन केरी। जेहिं सपनेहुँ परनारि न हेरी।। (रामचरित.बाल. 2.31)

Jāsu Viloki alaukika sobhā. Sahaja punīta mora manu chobhā. So sabu kārana jāna bidhātā. Pharakahiṁ subhada aṅga sunu bhrātā. (Rāmacaritamānasa Bālakāṇḍa, 2.31)

Raghubansinha kara sahaja subhāū. Manu kupatha pagu dharai na kāū.

Mohi atisaya pratīti mana kerī. Jehiṁ sapanehuṁ paranāri na herī. (Rāmacaritamānasa Bālakāṇḍa, 2.31)

[38] तुम्ह सम पुरुष न मो सम नारी। यह सँजोग बिधि रचा बिचारी।।

मम अनुरूप पुरुष जगमाहीं। देखऊँ खोजि लोक तिहु नाहीं।।

तातें अब लगि रहि ऊँ कुमारी। मनु माना कछु तुम्हहि निहारी।। (रामचरित. अरण्य. 16)

Tumha sama puruṣa na mo sama nārī. Yaha saňjoga bidhi racā bicārī.

Mama anurūpa puruṣa jagamāhīṁ. Dekhauṁ khoji loka tihu nāhīṁ.

Tāteṁ aba lagi rahi ūṁ kumārī. Manu mānā kachu tumhahi nihārī. (Rāmacaritamānasa araṇyakāṇḍa, 16)

[39] सीतहि चितइ कही प्रभु बाता। अहइ कुआर मोर लघु भ्राता।। (रामचरित. अरण्य. 16)

Sītahi citai kahī prabhu bātā. ahai Kuāra mora laghu bhrātā. (Rāmacaritamānasa araṇyakāṇḍa, 16)

[40] तुम राम को रूप अनूप धरो, पुनि जावहु बेगी सिया ढ़िग भाई।

मिलि हे उठि देरि के बेगि सिया, जिय जानि तुम्हें सुपिया रघुराई।।

यह कारज हुँ करि देखि लियो, नहीं पाइ सक्यो किंचित सफलाई।

जब राम को रूप बनावत हों, तब मातुसी दीखत नारि पराई।।

Tuma rāma ko rūpa anūpa dharo, puni jāvahu begī siyā ḍhiga bhāī.

mili he uthi deri ke begi siyā, Jiya jāni tumhem supiyā raghurāī.

Yaha kāraja huṁ kari dekhi liyo, Nahīm pāi sakyo kiñcita saphalāī.

Jaba rāma ko rūpa banāvata hom, Taba mātusī dīkhata nāri parāī.

[41] नाहं जानामि केयूरे, नाहं जानामि कुण्डले। नूपुरं त्वभि जानामि, नित्यं पादाभिवन्दनात्।। (वा.रा.किष्कि. 6.22)

Nāhaṁ Jānāmi Keyūre, nāhaṁ Jānāmi Kuṇḍale. Nūpuraṁ tvabhi Jānāmi, Nityaṁ Pādābhivandanāt. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Kiṣkindhākāṇḍa, 6.22)

[42] न तेऽम्बा मध्यमा तात गर्हितव्या कदाचन। Na te’mbā madhyamā tāta garhitavyā kadācana.

[43] एतदिच्छाम्यहं श्रोतुं परं कौतूहलं हि मे। महर्षे त्वं समर्थोऽसि ज्ञातुमेवं विधं नरम्।।

Etad-icchāmyahaṁ śrotuṁ paraṁ kautūhalaṁ hi me. Maharṣe tvaṁ samartho’si jñātumevaṁ vidhaṁ naram.

[44] ऐश्वर्यस्य समग्रस्य धर्मस्य यशसः श्रियः। ज्ञान-वैराग्ययोश्-चैव षण्णां भग- इतीरणा।। (विष्णु पुराण 6.5.74)

Aiśvaryasya samagrasya dharmasya yaśasaḥ śriyaḥ. Jñāna-vairāgyayoś-caiva ṣaṇṇāṁ bhaga itīraṇā. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa 6-5-74)

[45] आत्मानं मानुषं मन्ये रामं दशरथात्मजम्। (वा.रा.युद्ध. 117.11)

Ātmānaṁ mānuṣaṁ manye rāmaṁ daśarathātmajam.

(Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa,Yuddhakāṇḍa,117.11)

[46] एवमेकान्तसम्पृक्तौ ततस्तौ नरवानरौ।

उभावन्योन्यसदृशं सुखं दुःखमभाषताम्।। (वा.रा.किष्कि. 7.24)

Evam ekānta sampṛktau tatas tau nara vānarau. Ubhāvanyonya sadṛśaṁ sukhaṁ duḥkham abhāṣatām. (VālmīkiRāmāyaṇa,Kiṣkindhākāṇḍa, 7.24)

[47] या त्वं विरहिता नीता चलचित्तेन रक्षसा। दैवसम्पादितो दोषो मानुषेण मया जितः।। (वा.रा.युद्ध. 115.5)

Yā tvaṁ virahitā nītā calacittena rakṣasā. Daiva sampādito doṣo mānuṣeṇa mayā jitaḥ. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddhakāṇḍa, 115.5)

[48] नानृग्वेदविनीतस्य नायजुर्वेदधारिणः। नासामवेद विदुषः शक्यमेवं विभाषितुम्।।

नूनं व्याकरणं कृत्स्नमनेन बहुधा श्रुतम्। बहु व्याहरतानेन न किंचिदपशब्दितम्।। (वा.रा.किष्कि. 3.28-29)

Nānṛgveda vinītasya nāyajurveda dhāriṇaḥ. Nāsāmaveda viduṣaḥ śakyam evaṁ vibhāṣitum.

Nūnaṁ vyākaraṇaṁ kṛtsnaṁ anena bahudhā śrutam. Bahu vyāharatānena na kiñcid apaśabditam. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Kiṣkindhākāṇḍa, 3.28-29)

[49] मरणान्तानि वैराणि निर्वृत्तं नः प्रयोजनम्। क्रियतामस्य संस्कारो ममाप्येष यथा तव।। (वा.रा. युद्ध. 109.25)

Maraṇāntāni vairāṇi nirvṛttaṁ naḥ prayojanam. Kriyatāmasya saṁskāro mamāpyeśa yathā tava. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddhakāṇḍa, 109.25)

[50] अवश्यमेव लभते फलं पापस्य कर्मणः। भर्तः पर्यागते काले कर्ता नास्त्यत्र संशयः।। (वा.रा.युद्ध. 111.25)

Avaśyameva labhate phalaṁ pāpasya Karmaṇaḥ. Bhartaḥ paryāgate kāle kartā nāstyatra saṁśayaḥ. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddhakāṇḍa, 111.25)

[51] यादृशं कुरुते कर्म तादृशं फलमश्नुते। (वा.रा.उत्तर. 15.25)

Yādṛśaṁ kurute karma tādṛśaṁ phalamaśnute.

(Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Uttarakāṇḍa, 15.25)

[52] पापस्य हि फलं दुःखं तद् भोक्तव्यमिहात्मना। तस्मादात्मापघातार्थं मूढः पापं करिष्यति।। (वा.रा.उत्तर. 15.24)

Pāpasya hi phalaṁ duḥkhaṁ tad bhoktavyam ihātmanā. Tasmād ātmāpa ghātārthaṁ mūḍhaḥ pāpaṁ kariṣyati.

(Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Uttarakāṇḍa, 15.24)

[53] शुभकृच्छुभमाप्नोति पापकृत् पापमश्नुते। विभीषणः सुखं प्राप्तस्त्वं प्राप्तः पापमीदृशम्।। (वा.रा. युद्ध 111.26)

Śubha kṛcchubham āpnoti pāpakṛt pāpam aśnute. Vibhīṣaṇaḥsukhaṁ prāptastvaṁ prāptaḥ pāpamīdṛśam. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa,Yudhakāṇḍa 111.26)

[54] ऋद्धिं रूपं बलं पुत्रान् वित्तं शूरत्वमेव च। प्राप्नुवन्ति नरा लोके निर्जितं पुण्यकर्मभिः।। (वा.रा.उत्तर. 15.26)

Ṛddhiṁ rūpaṁ balaṁ putrān vittaṁ śūratvameva ca. Prāpnuvanti narā loke nirjitaṁ puṇya karmbhiḥ. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Uttarakāṇḍa, 15.26)

[55] न विषादे मनः कार्यं विषादो दोषवत्तरः। विषादो हन्ति पुरुषं बालं क्रुद्ध इवोरगः।। (वा.रा.किष्कि. 64.9)

Na viṣāde manaḥ kāryaṁ viṣādo doṣavattaraḥ. Viṣādo hanti puruṣaṁ bālaṁ kruddha ivoragaḥ. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Kiṣkindhākāṇḍa, 64.9)

[56] ये शोकमनुवर्तन्ते तेषां न विद्यते सुखम्। तेजश्च क्षीयते तेषां न त्वं शोचितुमर्हसि।। (वा.रा. किष्कि. 7.12)

Ye śokam anuvartante teṣāṁ na vidyate sukham. Tejaśca kṣīyate teṣāṁ na tvaṁ śocitum arhasi. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Kiṣkindhākāṇḍa, 7.12)

[57] आकारश्छाद्यमानोऽपि न शक्यो विनिगूहितुम्। बलाद्धि विवृणोत्येव भावमन्तर्गतं नृणाम्।। (वा.रा. युद्ध. 17.63)

Ākāraś chādya māno’pi na śakyo vinigūhitūm. Balāddhi vivṛṇotyeva bhāvam antargataṁ nṛṇām. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddhakāṇḍa, 17.63)

[58] आकारैरिङ्गितैर्गत्या चेष्टया भाषणेन च। नेत्रवक्त्रविकारैश्च लक्ष्यतेऽन्तर्गतं मनः।।

Ākārair iṅgitair gatyā ceṣtayā bhāṣaṇena ca. Netra vaktra vikāraiśca lakṣyate’ ntar gataṁ manaḥ.

[59] गोघ्ने चैव सुरापे च चौरे भग्नव्रते तथा। निष्कृतिर्विहिता सद्भिः कृतघ्ने नास्ति निष्कृतिः।। (वा.रा.किष्कि. 34.12)

Goghne caiva surāpe ca caure bhagnavrate tathā. Niṣkṛtir vihitā sadbhiḥ kṛtaghne nāsti niṣkṛtiḥ. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Kiṣkindhākāṇḍa, 34.12)

[60] उत्साहो बलवानार्य नास्त्युत्साहात् परं बलम्। सोत्साहस्य हि लोकेषु न किञ्चिदपि दुर्लभम्।।

उत्साहवन्तः पुरुषा नावसीदन्ति कर्मसु। उत्साहमात्रमाश्रित्य प्रतिलप्स्याम जानकीम्।। (वा.रा.किष्कि. 1.121-122)

Utsāho balavān-ārya nāstyutsāhāt paraṁ balam. Sotsāhasya hi lokeṣu na kiñcidapi durlabham.

Utsāhavantaḥ puruṣā nāvasīdanti karamasu. Utsāhamātramāśritya pratilapsyāma jānakīm. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Kiṣkindhākāṇḍa, 1.121-122)

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